Collaborations:

Sensors: Part 02a

Examining internal sensors in relation to flight stability

For this collaboration, we want to focus our exploration on internal sensors only. What sensors are out there? How do these sensors work in relation to a quadrotor’s flight stability? What kind of data can we get from these sensors, and then how can we use that data? If possible, start visualizing your data ideas in a block diagram.

5 months, 4 weeks

Sensors are important- Interior and Exterior

by Xavier S

When we talk about Sensors, we are talking about the environment. U.S.A has millions of sensors from Humidity Sensors to Atomic particles... Set up the important ones ( i'm sure we have over 1K ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sensors

External Links
6 months

comunuction and vision

by Gerjan V

My idea is to make a multi camera with infrared and ultrasound and a rgb. with the infrared you can see people from a distance and with ultrasound you can look behind walls. and you can make 3d images and measure distance and with rgb camera you can make film and pictures and get the colors for 3d images with mini computer like Arduino with a GPS module and 4g That uploads data to a server. and for STABILITY use a openpilot kit or someting like that.

6 months

Polarized Infrared Grids

by Evan v

The main idea behind this is, that you take two infrared emitters, polarize them, and use optics to make them emit a grid, one horizontal and the other vertical. Then using an infrared sensor for each polarity.(there are many that can be found and use with devices like the raspberryPi and arduino boards) Once the data has been collected, one simply needs to calculate the distortion of the grid to calculate the general shape of the room. I suspect this will be the easiest method to do, the distance can be calculated by the width between the grid lines. Further full 3D room mapping can be done by simply modifying current 3d scanning software.

6 months

Ultrasonic

by Mohammed N

Ultimately, the most easiest and cheapest navigation sensor is an ultrasonic sensor.This could be to avoid collisions, and one mounted on the bottom would give you an idea of altitude. May not work in extreme conditions, but it is the most easiest to configure.

6 months

Sensors

by Felix R

I the best at building drones, but my idea is that you you think of a drone like a 3d cube just put sensors on all 6 sides so that if the drone is about to hit a wall there is a 2 foot limit then when it hits that point it will go away from that wall and keep going to its target.

  • Evan v 6 months

    What if there is only open sky or water?

6 months

There are a few basic sensors.

by Nathan Y

I know that accelerometers and gyroscopic sensors can be used to measure the pitch and roll of the quadrotor. An example such as a Nintendo Wii remote can be used for this idea, a Wii remote uses solid state accelerometers which sense the tilt and the speed of the movement being applied to them; use something like this in a quadrotor and it can help provide flight stability. Gyroscopes could be used to measure the tilt and overall orientation of the quadrotor, by doing this it could send signals to the quadrotor's computer and keep the quadrotor upright. While, accelerometers measure the linear movement of an object, gyroscopes directly measure the orientation of the device. I believe you can find accelerometers and gyroscopes for pretty cheap too. Sources: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/iphone-accelerometer.htm http://answers.oreilly.com/topic/1751-mobile-accelerometers-and-gyroscopes-explained/

External Links
6 months

UAS

by Liam S

6 months

Sensors

by Liam S

  • Capt Wilfred Noel 5 months, 4 weeks

    I would love to have a reason to make this work. But, alas we don't have enough of temp differential in flight, and I'm not sure we'd be able to handle to water reservoir required. Way cool though.

6 months

Infrared Cameras

by Mohammed N

Infrared cameras would provide a lot of use, such as identifying living and nonliving objects, also ,finding necessary parts in a factory or building, (generators, computers, ext).I mean, in military terms, it is very useful.

6 months

Precise Coordinating System

by Joseph L

Quadrotors can share its location not only through GPS but within itself to recognize other Quadrotors and perhaps other ally forces. This system combined with GPS information would give precise flight formations and decrease work load by not doing what other Quadrotors already have finished.

6 months

Optimizing Instability

by C Eduardo Q

I believe that sensors to read the density of the air(pressure), in the local, and wind speed... can collaborate to make a better algorithm to optimize vibrations... I believe that a good gyroscope or accelerometer, digital, or nanocapacitors, to catch the vibration and angles... a 3D position(GPS) off course, and Wi-Fi off course, to send the signals to a remote computer to process the datas, and instruct the next step of the robot in real time.. (Sorry if my ideas are not good enough. I have few experience with robots, I had only made some Arduino programs in my own house, by myself. My intention is collaborate to your progress! Cheers!)

  • C Eduardo Q 6 months

    And off course, use "Finite Element Analysis" to optimize the flows, and mechanics, vibrations, this is essential... for a good project!! (About Finite Element Method, I have worked some 5 years between 2003-2007, with Finite Element Analysis, when I was concluding my "Materials Engineer" university and after when I studied my Master in Materials Engineering/Matériaux Composites). My intention is collaborate! Cheers.

  • Capt Wilfred Noel 5 months, 4 weeks

    These are good ideas. Most are already part of our baseline system.

6 months

My Idea

by C Eduardo Q

You can make a "electrical induction current" battery (re)charge, so you make also an algorithm to the quadrocopter that sends him to re-charge when its battery is getting low... giving the exact position of the recharger. For example, if you wanna monitoring some area, you will put cameras in your quadrocopters... so, in this way, your quadrocopters get back to recharge(by electrical induction, without touch) when the battery is getting low. And while some quadrocopters film the area, others are recharging.. and alternating them, with a good algorithm, you can film this area infinitely, and save energy!!

  • C Eduardo Q 6 months

    Lighter the materials, more energy will be saved!! More résistent the matériaux, better!! Much lighter and more résistent (resistence/weight proportion) the materials composing the quadrocopter, better!!

  • C Eduardo Q 6 months

    Smaller the battery and lowest the weight, better!!! Lighter materials to the battery and with longer life.. better!! Minimum weight to save energy!! So, smaller and lighter battery with longest energy life, better!!

  • C Eduardo Q 6 months

    If you can power the recharger with solar, chemical, or some sustentable source of energy. So you can make the quadrocopters "move the solarcells recharger" to the best point where the sun have higher incidence(better!), and optimize/save energy!!

  • Capt Wilfred Noel 5 months, 4 weeks

    This is a good way to charge quickly and rotate low power devices. With enough robots rotating around we wouldn't have to carry such large batteries.

6 months

Gyroscope for Pitch and Roll

by Tyler O

A gryoscope mounted under each rotor and the center fuselage could give an accurate reading of the craft's orientation. These gyros could relay information to the computer and give an accurate reading to the navigation system.

  • Kevin S 6 months

    Not trying to discount your input, but a typical off the shelf quad has at least an accelerometer to report it's present orientation. In fact they can't fly without one. If you look into autopilot systems like the Arducopter the fully loaded quad has an accelerometer, magnetometer (compass), barometer (to accurately measure altitude), and high accuracy GPS on board. The GPS also gives an altitude reading, and during movement can report the current heading, so there's some redundancy to verify altitude and heading in case it encounters a strong magnetic field or a sudden change in barometric pressure.

  • Dimitrios P 6 months

    Kevin, I subscribe to your description of the typical architecture; I would just like to clarify few points: 1) accelerometers (which in our case refer to a triad of strapdown MEMS accelerometers *hopefully* aligned with the vehicle's body frame) provide the specific force f as output (f = acc-gravity). Accelerometers thus are not enough to determine the attitude, unless one resorts to vector matching algorithms, which utilize the known measurements and the reference values of 2 vector fields, in our case the gravity field (coming out of accelerometers after the acceleration term is filtered out) and the magnetic field, coming out of the 3D magnetometer. As the acceleration cannot be filtered out effectively in the high bandwidth required, this solution is not ideal for a highly-maneuverable quadrotor. In the end, ones has to fuse accelerometer with gyroscope measurements (gyros are often included in those small and cheap MEMS Inertial Measurement Units, together with accelerometers and magnetometers). 2) The GPS provides the course, not the heading. Heading is an element of the vehicle's attitude and together with roll and pitch can provide its orientation. The course on the other hand is the direction of the velocity vector on the 2D plane, as measured by the GPS. There are numerous cases where those 2 quantities may differ rather significantly on any UAV with VTOL capabilities (e.g. non airplane) and it would be dangerous to try to correlate them in a control algorithm. 3) You have raised the issue of a strong magnetic field chance... This is indeed a very serious problem. To make matters worse, the source of the magnetic field disturbance on a quadrotor will probably come from the quadrotor itself: the DC motors draw significant amounts of current from the battery, which can change frequently for each motor (as the RPM changes individually on each rotor). That variations of current will cause strong variations on the magnetic field generated and even if one calibrates a magnetometer, performance under dynamic conditions may be unpredictable. There is some work in the literature on the topic (using among others some online calibration methods, if I remember correctly) but I would say that it still remains an open issue.

6 months, 1 week

Existing work presented on TED

by Allen C

  • Allen C 6 months, 1 week

    Also other important videos on the ethics of robotic systems in military systems: http://www.ted.com/talks/pw_singer_on_robots_of_war.html http://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_suarez_the_kill_decision_shouldn_t_belong_to_a_robot.html

  • Kevin S 6 months

    I've seen a few of those videos. Totally amazing stuff. Especially the first one where he's playing catch with the group of quads holding a net. Very cool!!

  • Chrissy D 6 months

    Very cool!

  • Dimitrios P 6 months

    Well, this kind of work is indeed amazing and breathtaking. Nobody can deny that they showcase the capabilities of aerial robotics in an aesthetically nice and fascinating way. Nevertheless, I don't believe that they can be related to the conceptual design of a real world, military oriented quadrotor. Here is why: To perform those amazing maneuvers, you need exceptional state estimation capabilities. In those cases where a bunch of quadrotors fly indoors, this is achieved with highly elaborate motion capture systems ( = numerous cameras set up around the configuration space that identify special markings on the vehicles and subsequently provide the attitude and the rest of the state vector for each of them at a high frequency, higher than most onboard systems would do). Such a setup is not feasible in the battlefield: there, one needs a robust vehicle with very high autonomy levels and, make no mistake, autonomy means doing more things on your own by your own means, in our case, onboard the vehicle. In academia this setup is very popular, but only as a proof of concept for innovative ideas. It still remains a huge issue how to move those concepts from the lab to the real world, where, in the case of miniature / small UAVs the weight, power, and space limitations are very hard to overcome

6 months, 1 week

REPLY to Reece M on Electomagnets

by Liam S

ReeceM had a though that you could recharge the Quadrotor in flight by using electomagnetics and I agree. But I also believe if you had strong enough electromagnetic field you would only need to spend energy in controlling your direction and speed of movement instead of using you energy on getting the propellers to spin. The video shows a model of what i mean. I posted this here instead of just replying because i needed to post the video. Also having the propellers encased like it shows in the video would protect them from certain dangers.

  • Dr Jess W Curtis 6 months

    EM-power charging is problematic in practice because generally energy transfer is neglible unless the robot is very close the charging magnetic fields (if you notice tooth brushes and phone charges the charging device has to be basically touching the charger...) If you bring the QR back to be in close-proximity with a charging station that might be an option, though EM charging carries a weight penalty because the QR has to carry a coil of wire.

  • Liam S 6 months

    Would it be possible to still use it to consume less energy?

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